May 18, 2024

Selection of commonly used special characters in different character sets

This page contains an overview of commonly used special characters. The characters appear in different categories ordered by reasonable topics.

The tables show the ASCII number (if applicable) in decimal, the UNICODE number in hexadecimal, the HTML Code as entity or UNICODE reference and a possible call in LaTex code.

Additionally the tables provide a short description of the symbols. The purpose of this description is to make searching more efficient. You may use Ctrl+F in your web browser to search for a symbol on this page.

Keep in mind, that this is a hand made selection of symbols and characters. If you think something is missing do not hesitate to post a comment. We are happy to keep this page up to date.

Also take a look at the ASCII Table. Hint

You can type special characters on you keyboard easily. Use ALT+ on your keyboard to print a symbol. Use the Numpad to type in the number and type a decimal number. Keep pressing ALT-key while typing in the number and release ALT-key when you finished typing the number.


Special characters that are used in mathematics. Operators, calculations and identifiers.

\inftyUncountable, Capsized 8 Eight
Square RootU+221A√
\sqrt{ … }Square Root, radical
\sumCapital Sigma for summing up
Partial DifferentialU+2202∂
\partialupside down six 6, partial derivation deduction for example second paramter y
Universal QuantifierU+2200∀
\forallFor all. Upside down A.
Existential QuantifierU+2203∃
\existsIt exists. Inversed E
\intAntiderivative, large S
Per MilleU+2030‰
\permil or \textperthousandPer thousand, known for alcohol level
½Fraction one halfU+00BD½
\textonehalf or fractions in general: \frac{1}{2}1 One divided by 2 two. Decimal fraction symbol.
¼Fraction one quarterU+00BC¼
\textonequarter or fractions in general: \frac{1}{4}1 One divided by 4 four as a decimal fraction.
¾Fraction Three QuarterU+00BE¾
\textthreequarters or fractions in general: \frac{3}{4}3 Three divided by 4 four in a decimal fraction.


Logical and algebraic operators

<lower than60U+003C&lt;
\textless or < in mathmodeSymbol for marking smaller than or lower than. Capsized v opening to the right.
>greater than63U+003E&gt;
\textgreater or > in mathmodeSymbol for showin greater than or larger than. Capsized v opening to the left.
less than or equalU+2264&le;
\leqSpecial Character for less than or equal or lower than or equal.
greater than or equalU+2265&ge;
\geqSymbol for greater than or equal.
not equalU+2260&ne;
\neqnon-equal, nonequality, commonly known as !=
almost equalU+2248&asymp;
\approxAsymptotic, Approximal, Almost equal, two waves
Identity, IdenticalU+2261&equiv;
\equivEquivalent, strong Equals, three stripes
\& or \withalso known for: logical and bitwise and in many programming languages
\pmPlus and Minus in one Character written in vertical order.


Special Characters used in Physics.

almost equalU+2248&asymp;
\approxAsymptotic, Approximal, Almost equal, two waves
\lambdaGreek character lambda. Used for wavelength in physics.
ωlowercase omegaU+03C9&omega;
\omega or \textomegalower case Greek letter omega. Used for radial frequency, angular frequency, circuit frequency, circular frequency in physics.
ΩCapital OmegaU+937&Omega;
\ohm or \Omega or \textscomega or \UpomegaKnown for Ohm resistance in Physics. Greek letter.


Special Characters from the category currency, trade, commerce and money

\euroCurrency symbol for money represented as Euro
\$Currency symbol for money represented as Dollar
\poundsCurrency British Great Britain money
\cent or \textcent or \textcentoldstyleDollar-Cent Character
\textyenJapanese currency Yen, Money

Punctuation marks

Special punctuation marks that are not easy to find on a keyboard

¿Inversed Question MarkU+00BF&iquest;
\textquestiondownSpanish question mark, reversed upside down inverted
single guillemet leftU+2039&lsaquo;
\guilsinglleftopening French quotation mark
single guillemet rightU+203A&rsaquo;
\guilsinglrightclosing French quotation mark right closing
«double guillemets leftU+00AB&laquo;
\guillemotleftDouble French quotation mark opening
»double guillemets rightU+00BB&raquo;
\guillemotrightDouble French quotation mark closing
Three dotsU+2026&8230;
\dotsb, \dotsc, \dotsi3 Three small dots, horizontal ellipsis

Set Theory

Special Characters used in the Set Theory

\cupUnion in the set theory, looks like a cup
\capIntersection between to sets. Looks like a cap.
(Real) SubsetU+2282&sub;
\subsetCapsized U open to the right
(Real) Subset (left)U+2283&sup;
\supsetCapsized U open to the left
Is elementU+2208&isin;
\inA is element of B where A is element and B is a set. Looks like a small e or Euro with only one horizontal bar.
not element ofU+2209&notin;
\notinElement A is not in B, B is a set. small e
Universal QuantifierU+2200&forall;
\forallFor all. Upside down A.
Existential QuantifierU+2203&exist;
\existsIt exists. Inversed E
Inversed is elementU+220B&ni;
\niA is Element of B, B is set. small inversed e

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